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Online Dental Education Library

Our team of dental specialists and staff strive to improve the overall health of our patients by focusing on preventing, diagnosing and treating conditions associated with your teeth and gums. Please use our dental library to learn more about dental problems and treatments available. If you have questions or need to schedule an appointment, contact us.
 

Bacterial Link Between Heart Disease and Gum Disease Clarified 
September 30th, 2015 By Managing Editor, DiabetesinControl.com 

A study, published in Infection and Immunity, has clarified the mechanism behind a known link between gum disease and heart disease. Periodontitis, which results in an infection that damages the soft-tissue surrounding teeth and the bone supporting the teeth, is commonly caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobe that colonizes mouth tissues for lengthy periods of time after initial infection. It is commonly found within the arterial plaques common to heart disease patients. 

The study authors discovered that the bacteria alters the gene expression of pro-inflammatory proteins that also promote coronary artery atherosclerosis. This was discovered by infecting cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells with P. gingivalis. Aortic smooth muscle cells were used because they contract the aorta after the pumping of the heart stretches it out. 

After P. gingivalis was injected into the cells, the bacteria released gingipains. Gingipains are enzymes that change the ratio between different angiopoietins (inflammatory proteins) in such a way that inflammation is increased. The pro-inflammatory angiopoietin 2 had its expression increased by the gingipains, whereas the anti-inflammatory angiopoietin 1 had its expression reduced. P gingivalis was found to affect the levels of these proteins independent of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). 

The study is significant because it helps to pinpoint the relationship between periodontitis and heart disease. Further research can help clarify potential targets for treatment of atherosclerosis. 

Practice Pearls: 

Periodontitis and heart disease share a common pathogen, P. gingivitis. 
A study found that P. gingivitis alters gene expression to increase production of the pro-inflammatory protein angiopoietin 2 and decreases presence of the anti-inflammatory protein angiopoietin 1. This results in increased atherosclerosis. 
The study further clarifies the cardiovascular risk of poor oral health and hygiene. 
Paddock C. Scientists uncover bacterial mechanism that links gum disease to heart disease. published in the journal Infection and Immunity. September 14, 2015. 

We recommend 

PERIODONTAL DISEASE AND DIABETES 
Diabetes in control , 2006 
Is Periodontal Disease Influenced by Diabetes Type? 
Diabetes in control , 2014 
Diabetes Linked to Tooth Decay 
Diabetes in control , 2011 
Scientists uncover bacterial mechanism that links gum disease to heart disease 
Catharine Paddock PhD, Medical News Today, 2015 
Periodontitis and heart disease: Researchers connect the molecular dots 
American Society for Microbiology News via MDLinx, 2015 
The Biphasic Virulence Activities of Gingipains: Activation and Inactivation of Host Proteins



Overview

People choose esthetic dental procedures/surgery for various reasons—to repair a defect such as a malformed bite or crooked teeth, treat an injury, or just improve their overall appearance.  Whatever the reason, the ultimate goal is to restore a beautiful smile.

For these and many other reasons, esthetic dentistry has become a vital and important part of the dental profession.

Common esthetic dental procedures can be performed to correct misshaped, discolored, chipped or missing teeth. They also can be used to change the overall shape of teeth—from teeth that are too long or short, have gaps, or simply need to be reshaped.

Some of the more common procedures involve:

  • Bonding - A procedure in which tooth-colored material is used to close gaps or change tooth color.
  • Contouring and reshaping - A procedure that straightens crooked, chipped, cracked or overlapping teeth.
  • Veneers - A procedure in which ultra-thin coatings are placed over the front teeth. Veneers can change the color or shape of your teeth. For example, veneers have been used to correct unevenly spaced, crooked, chipped, oddly shaped or discolored teeth.
  • Whitening and bleaching - As the term implies, whitening and bleaching, a rapidly increasing procedure, are used to make teeth whiter.

Which techniques should be used to improve your smile? A dental exam will take many factors into consideration, including your overall oral health.